Tuesday, October 15, 2013

5 Ways to Shape Behavior

Shaping Procedures:
Shaping means you are gradually building up to your end goal behavior. There are many methods of doing that. Here are some examples.

 Differential Reinforcement of Higher Rates of Behavior (DRH) 
With DRH you pick a target behavior to increase. You are reinforcing the increase in this positive target behavior. The goal is this behavior will be happening so often that there is not time for the child to do the undesirable behavior. You should see an increase in the positive behavior and at the same time a decrease in the negative behavior.

 Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior (DRL) 
With DRL you are rewarding a child when his negative target behavior is happening less often.
For example:
Week 1: "You pooped your pants 3 times this week instead of 5? Great job. Here is a candy bar."
Week 2: "You pooped your pants 2 times this week instead of 3? Great job. Here is a candy bar."

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) 
With DRO reinforcement is given only if the target behavior does not happen during a certain period of time.
Ex: "You did not poop your pants at school?" Great job. Here is a candy bar."

 Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) 
With DRA reinforcement is given when a child uses a more appropriate behavior in place of the target negative behavior.
Ex: A child asks nicely for food instead of demanding mom to get him the food for him.

 Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) 
With DRI you are reinforcing when a child does a positive behavior that is incompatible with the target negative behavior.
Ex: If you are trying to decrease running the child gets reinforced when they are sitting, coloring, or reading a book. Non compatible behaviors get reinforced.

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